Kirk J. Brower, M.D.
Dr. Brower is professor of psychiatry at the University of Michigan Medical School and executive director of the University of Michigan Addiction Treatment Services.
Dr. Brower's research focuses on how to improve treatment for addiction by studying the biological and psychosocial predictors of relapse and recovery. Predictors of interest include sleep (Brower 2003), genetics (Wojnar et al., 2009) impulsiveness and suicidality (Wojnar et al., 2008), and spiritual factors (Robinson et al 2007).
Sleep disturbance has been shown to predict relapse in alcohol-dependent patients when measured either by self-report on clinical questionnaires or in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography (Brower, 2003). Most sleeping pills are addictive and have other side effects (Brower et al., 2010) and thus avoided in substance-dependent patients, but non-addictive medication as well as behavioral therapy can improve sleep quality and possibly decrease relapse rates (Arnedt et al., in press; Brower et al., in press; Conroy et al 2008).
Dr. Brower has participated in several randomized clinical pharmacotherapy trials, including injected naltrexone for alcohol dependence (Kranzler et al., 2004) sertraline for co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression (Kranzler et al., 2006), and gabapentin to treat alcohol dependence and co-morbid insomnia (Brower et al., 2008).
Although most of Dr. Brower’s research pertains to alcohol dependence, he has also testified at a Congressional Committee Hearing and written extensively about the psychiatric and addictive effects of anabolic steroids (Brower, 2009; Kanayama et al., 2009).
- Arnedt JA, Conroy DA, Armitage R, Brower KJ: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Behav Res Ther, in press.
- Brower KJ: Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence in clinical practice. Physician Sportsmed 2009; 37:131-140
- Brower KJ: Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse. Sleep Med Rev 2003; 7:523-539.
- Brower KJ, Conroy DA, Kurth ME, Anderson BJ, Stein MD: Ramelteon and improved insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients: a case series. J Clin Sleep Med, in press.
- Brower KJ, Kim HM, Strobbe S, Karam-Hage MA, consens F, Zucker RA. A randomized double-blind pilot trial of gabapentin vs. placebo to treat alcohol dependence and comorbid insomnia. Alcohol Clin Esp Res, 2008: 32:1429-1428.(PMC2927959)
- Brower KJ, McCammon RJ, Wojnar M, Ilgen MA, Wojnar J, Valenstein M. Prescription sleeping pills, insomnia, and suicidality in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J Clin Psychiatry 2010 (doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05484gry)
- Conroy D, Arnedt JT, Brower KJ: Insomnia in patients with addictions: A safer way to break the cycle. Curr Psychiatry 2008; 7(5):97-109.
- Kanayama G, Brower KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG, Jr. Issues for DSM-V: clarifying the diagnostic criteria for anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166:642-645. (PMC2696068)
- Kranzler HR, Mueller T, Cornelius J, Pettinati HM, Moak D, Martin PR, Anthenelli R, Brower KJ, O'Malley S, Mason BJ, Hasin D, Keller M: Sertraline treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26:13-20.
- Kranzler HR, Wesson DR, Billot L, for the DAS Naltrexone Study Group: Naltrexone depot for treatment of alcohol dependence: a multi-center randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004; 28:1051-1059.
- Robinson EAR, Cranford JA, Webb JR, Brower KJ: Six-month changes in spirituality, religiousness, and heavy drinking in a treatment-seeking sample. J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs 2007; 68:282-290.
- Wojnar M, Ilgen MA, Jakubczyk A, Wnorowska A, Klimkiewicz A, Brower KJ. Impulsive suicidal attempts predict post-treatment relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Dep 2008; 97:268-275. (PMC3006072)
- Wojnar M, Brower KJ, Strobbe S, Ilgen M, Matsumoto H, Nowosad I, Sliwerska E, Burmeister M. Association between Val66Met brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphism and post-treatment relapse in alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33:693-702. (PMC2928673)